Simple Arithmetic 3

2 secs 1024 MB
Rute

注意:この問題文には日本語版がありません。

Problem Statement


This year,There are teams entried World BaseBall Contest.
This World BaseBall contest is Tournament, and only 1 team will be Champion.
How many games will it be before a Champion is decided?
However, all matches shall end in a win or a loss, and no tie shall be considered.
This answer can be large, so output the remainder divided by .

Constraints


is Integer

Input


Output


Please output "How many games will it be before a Champion is decided".

Sample Case


Input
4
Output
3

On the First Round, There are match, teams will be defeated.
On the Second Round(and it is Final Round), teams will be defeated and Champion is decided.
So, The answer is , Please output .

Sample Case


Input
1234567890
Output
234567882

This answer can be large, so output the remainder divided by .

提出


Go (1.14)